Ginsenoside Rg5 induces NSCLC cell apoptosis and autophagy.


Hum Exp Toxicol. 2024 ;43:9603271241229140. PMID: 38289222

Abstract Title: 

Ginsenoside Rg5 induces NSCLC cell apoptosis and autophagy through PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.


OBJECTIVE: Ginsenoside Rg5 (Rg5) is a minor ginsenoside of ginseng and has a strong anti-tumor potential. This study focused on deciphering the function of Rg5 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and investigating its related mechanism.METHODS: After treating human NSCLC cell lines (H1650 and A549) and bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) with increasing concentration of Rg5, cell viability was examined using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay. NSCLC cell proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated by colony formation assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The levels of proteins associated with cell cycle progression, cell apoptosis, and autophagy as well as the key markers in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway were measured using western blot. A xenograft nude mouse model was established to explore the function of Rg5.RESULTS: NSCLC cell viability was dose- and time-dependently suppressed after Rg5 treatment. Rg5 restrained NSCLC cell proliferation by inducing G2/M phase arrest via regulation of cell cycle-related genes including p21, cyclin B1, and Cdc2. Additionally, Rg5 promoted caspase-dependent apoptosis in NSCLC cells by regulating the intrinsic mitochondrial signaling pathway. Rg5 induced autophagy via the regulation of autophagy-related proteins. Theexperiments revealed the inhibitory impact of Rg5 on xenograft growth. Rg5 also inactivated the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in NSCLC cells and mouse tumors.CONCLUSION: Rg5 induced autophagy and caspase-dependent apoptosis in NSCLC cells by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, suggesting that Rg5 might become a promising and novel anti-tumor agent for the clinical treatment of NSCLC patients.

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#Ginsenoside #Rg5 #induces #NSCLC #cell #apoptosis #autophagy

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